Conflict, Violence and Memory NUBS 1.13
Jul 07, 2023 11:00 - 12:30(Europe/London)
20230707T1100 20230707T1230 Europe/London 9.14. Sites of Memory and Violence NUBS 1.13 MSA Conference Newcastle 2023
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Remembering Massacre: Sacrality in Physical and Incorporeal Sites of Memory on Chios
Individual paperConflict, Violence and Memory 00:00 Midnight - 11:00 PM (Europe/London) 2023/07/06 23:00:00 UTC - 2023/07/07 22:00:00 UTC
The Massacre of Chios (1824) by Eugène Delacroix illustrates the titular genocide from the Greek War of Independence. The Chios Massacre was a veritable razing of the entire island by Ottoman Turks in 1822. Today, a replica of Delacroix's painting resides on the island inside the entrance of the Chios Byzantine Museum, located in a converted mosque built on the ruins of a Christian church. This paper will explore this site as a test case for the existence of non-Western temporalities, including Aegean and liturgical temporalities, as they pertain to the commemoration of the massacre through interaction with the replica. The Chios Byzantine Museum is a site where different temporalities are present. These temporalities are not causal or linear as in the West. On Chios, everyday interactions with history happen through the orthodox devotions and concomitant emotions of the present, with temporally transcendent icons, relics, and rituals promoting the imbrication of temporalities. The layout of the mosque, in its simplicity, conforms roughly to the plan of a Greek Orthodox church with the museum space organized to emphasize this, encouraging a liturgical temporality. Given that Chiots remember the massacre victims as tantamount to saints, the saturation of Christian elements in Delacroix's composition communes with the museum space to create an active site of memory, with the replica functioning like the Holy Greek Orthodox icons in the adjacent room, inviting a liturgical temporality. A comparable site, Agio Minas, a major massacre site in Southern Chios, also exhibits genocide victims as saints through eikonic imagery; here, victims' remains are displayed as relics alongside an icon of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, setting the stage, so to speak, for the naos where blood still stains the stone floor. In a similar way, the replica located in the "narthex" of the museum mediates a preparatory experience that overlays a narrative of Christian martyrdom onto the museum's "naos," where visitors engage with the icon collection. The proximity of replica and Byzantine collection overlays Chios' destruction with that of Constantinople's, collapsing time in presenting the two as related events. The Chios Byzantine Museum exemplifies what anthropologist Nicolas Argenti has termed "Aegean temporality," where past and present overlap in physical and incorporeal sites of memory. Traditionally, Orthodox icons do just that: transcendent and a-temporal by nature, their efficacy lies in bringing the pictured figure into the present moment and "enfleshing" remembrance as a current reality. The replica Massacre of Chios likewise acts as an active a-temporal object. Because of affordances granted by the narthex space and eikonic associations, it sacralizes the museum space into a living site of memory. With Aegean temporality facilitating a constant re-experiencing of the massacre, the massacre's presence and potency are not something left in the past. The painting's status as a semi-icon supports the immediacy of the massacre, as the viewer spiritually interacts with the image in the present.
Colette Burton
Graduate Student , Brigham Young University
From Conflict to Peace: Land of Memories, the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea
Individual paperConflict, Violence and Memory 00:00 Midnight - 11:00 PM (Europe/London) 2023/07/06 23:00:00 UTC - 2023/07/07 22:00:00 UTC
The year 2023 marks the 70th anniversary of the signing of the Korean War (1950-1953) Armistice. Five years after World War II, 22 multinational United Nations (UN) military forces participated in the conflict to defend the Republic of Korea (ROK) from the Communist forces. Despite the abundant literature on the "forgotten war", hardly any research has been conducted on the dynamism of memories embedded in war cemeteries. Accordingly, an in-depth analysis of the reconstruction of memories among various communities is needed.
The main objective of this research is to investigate how local and global communities and memories are reconfigured in multifaceted ways through United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea (UNMCK) located in Busan City. As the only UN-designated cemetery in the world, the UNMCK has been the final resting place of the 2,315 fallen UN military personnel since its establishment in 1951. Recently, the local government has been reinterpreting this UN graveyard as the main component of "Busan, the Korean Wartime Capital" to prepare for the inscription on UNESCO's World Heritage List in the 2030s. This research examines how multiple levels of communities, such as local, national, global, and transnational, have cooperated to reinvent postwar memories through the UNMCK.   

My research adopts multidimensional methodologies as follows:
(1) Conducting a literature review of the memory studies,
(2) Performing an interview with the former British veteran who buried about 90 deceased soldiers in this UN graveyard during the Korean War,
(3) Investigating a documentary film titled "Land of Memory, the UN Cemetery", which the presenter took part in as an academic advisor and was produced by the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) in 2021,
(4) An examination of the various stakeholders' memories through the case of local students' volunteer activities to honour British veterans in Tameside, United Kingdom, in 2020. 

Research findings demonstrate that the UNMCK not only reinvents postwar memories but also socially re-creates an imagined community interconnecting Busan City, the ROK, and the UN allied nations. It is mainly related to the local community's selection of memory, building a bridge between the past, present, and future. In conclusion, my paper highlights the complex dynamics of the UN cemetery's reshaping and outreaching memories from a "historic site of conflict" to a "bastion of a peaceful future" incorporating the UN allied nations after the Korean War. Commemorating the 70th anniversary of the armistice agreement, and with the continuing war threatening our lives, this research would be a timely contribution in shedding light on the relationships between conflict, violence, and memory through the case of the land of memories, the United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Korea. 

Chungsun Lee
Researcher , The University Of Tokyo
The Lived Experience of Loss: a comparison of memory practices at the VVM and MVST
Individual paperConflict, Violence and Memory 00:00 Midnight - 11:00 PM (Europe/London) 2023/07/06 23:00:00 UTC - 2023/07/07 22:00:00 UTC
The Parque de la Memoria, or Memory Park, on Buenos Aires' northern shore remembers the ten thousand or so victims who were forcibly disappeared or summarily executed outside of due process in the political violence that culminated in Argentina's last military dictatorship of 1976-83. The design of the park's central monument led to instant comparisons with Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C. Unlike the VVM, however, Argentina's Monument to the Victims of State Terrorism has not been met by the same kind of widespread public mourning. 
In this paper, I argue that the divergence in public reception to the two memorials can be understood as a result of the different lived experiences of loss of family members in Argentina and the United States. The notion of the lived experience of loss draws from the work of Henri Lefebvre (1991). Inspired by Lefebvre's notion of the production of space - understood here to denote the production of memory space - I seek to show how family members and former colleagues of veterans in the US appropriated the space of the VVM to bring public memory more in line with their lived experiences of mourning their missing or dead. This can be contrasted with the lived experiences of relatives in Argentina, who long ago took to dwelling in public space in order to prosecute their demands for truth and justice for the(ir) disappeared. 
The competing lived experiences of loss, I argue, help to explain why the practices of memory and mourning are so different at the two spaces, despite the obvious similarities in the way they were conceived and designed.
Daniel James
Lecturer In Geography, University Of Exeter
Graduate Student
Brigham Young University
The University of Tokyo
Lecturer in Geography
University of Exeter
 James Riding
NUAcT Fellow
Newcastle University
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